Writings in Bengali and Sanskrit

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Writings in Bengali and Sanskrit


Sri Aurobindo started learning Bengali, his mother tongue, in England, as a probationer for the Indian Civil Service. After his return to India he began a serious study of the language with a view to acquiring proficiency in reading, writing and speaking. He wrote poems, essays, translations and letters in Bengali from his years as an administrative officer and professor in Baroda (1893-1906), through the period of his political activism in Calcutta, where he edited the Bengali weekly “Dharma” in 1909-10, to the 1930s when he corresponded in Bengali with a few members of his Ashram in Pondicherry.

Sri Aurobindo’s writings in Sanskrit are much less extensive than those in Bengali, but likewise include poetry and prose on a significant range of topics. They show in a brief compass Sri Aurobindo’s development from the period when he was assimilating India’s cultural heritage after his return from England, through his days as a nationalist leader, to his flowering as a Yogi, scholar and thinker contributing to the recovery of the ancient wisdom of the Veda and Upanishads. These writings were not published during his lifetime, but were discovered in his manuscripts after his passing.


Writings in Sanskrit:

  • Vividhāḥ ślokāḥ (1900-03)
  • Prāṇa idaṁ sarvam (1900-03)
  • Bhavānī Bhāratī (1904-08)
  • Tāntrikasiddhiprakaraṇam (1910-11)
  • Saptacatuṣṭayam (1910-12)
  • Ekamevādvitīyaṁ Brahma (1912-13)
  • Kaivalyopaniṣad commentary (1912)
  • Ṛgvedaḥ commentary (1920, 1916)
  • Sā sarvā (1927)
  • Mantrāḥ (1927-1933)


OM anandamayi chaitanyamayi satyamayi parame.jpg




Bengali Writings translated into English

Sri Aurobindo - Bengali writings translated into English.jpg
PDF (448 pages)


I. Hymns

Hymn to Durga (Dharma, No. 9, October, 1909) 3
Hymn to Dawn (Archives, April 1977) 6

II. Stories

A Dream (Suprabhat, 1909-1910) 11
The Ideal of Forgiveness (Dharma, No. 26, February, 1910) 21

III. The Veda

The Secret of the Veda (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 27
Agni — The Divine Energy (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 35
The Rigveda (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 42

IV. The Upanishads

The Upanishads (Dharma, No. 15, December, 1909) 57
The Integral Yoga in the Upanishads (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 60
The Isha Upanishad (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 63

V. The Puranas

The Puranas (Dharma, No. 17, December, 1909) 71

VI. The Gita

The Dharma of the Gita (Dharma, No. 2, August, 1909) 77
The Vision of the World Spirit (Dharma, No. 23, February, 1910) 86
The Gita: An Introduction (Dharma, Nos. 7-9, 1909-1910) 91
The Gita: Text — Translation (Dharma, No. 10, 1909) 107
Sanjaya's Gift of Divine Vision (Dharma, Nos. 11-18, 1909-1910) 117
The Gita: Text — Translation (2) (Dharma, Nos. 19-24, 1910) 151

VII. Dharma

The Chariot of Jagannath (Prabartak, 1918) 171 Paper icon.png Wiki icon.png
Three Stages of Human Society (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 176
Ahankara (Dharma, No. 5, September, 1909) 179
Integrality (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 182
Hymns and Prayers (Dharma, No. 24, February, 1910) 184
Our Religion (Dharma, No. 1, August, 1909) 189
Maya (Dharma, No. 3, August, 1909) 194
Nivritti (Dharma, No. 12, November, 1909) 201
Prakamya (Dharma, Nos. 17 and 18, 1909-1910) 205

VIII. Nationalism

The Old and The New (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 213
The Problem of the Past (Dharma, No. 6, September, 1909) 215
The Country and Nationalism (Dharma, No. 14, December, 1909) 224
The True Meaning of Freedom (Dharma, No. 8, October, 1909) 227
A Word About Society (Vividha Rachana, 1955) 230
Fraternity (Dharma, No. 23, February, 1910) 232
Indian Painting (Dharma, No. 25, February, 1910) 237
Hirobumi Ito (Dharma, No. 10, November, 1909) 239
Guru Govind Singh (Dharma, No. 8, October, 1909) 241
National Resurgence (Dharma, No. 5, September, 1909) 243
Our Hope (Dharma, No. 20, January, 1910) 249
East and West (Dharma, No. 22, January, 1910) 253

IX. Tales of Prison Life

Tales of Prison Life (Suprabhat, 1909-1910) 261
Prison and Freedom (Bharati) 320
The Aryan Ideal and the Three Gunas (Suprabhat, 1909-1910) 331
New Birth (Dharma, No, 2, August, 1909) 342

X. Letters

Letters to Mrinalini (1905-1907) 349
A Letter to Barin (1920) 359
Letters to N. and S. (Published, 1951 & 1959) 376
Obstacles and Difficulties 376
Parts of the being 390
Foundations of Yoga 397
Experience, Direct Perception and Realisation 402
Dependence on the Mother 412
Inner Vision — Symbols — Colours 419
Devotion — Faith — Reliance 424
The Psychic Being 427
Pride — Impurity — Grief — Despair 430
Planes of Consciousness 432

XI. Poetry

The Mother Awakes (Archives, April 1980) 435
Living Matter (Archives, December 1979) 438
The Music of Silence (Archives, April 1978) 442
Ravana Vanquished (Archives, April 1979) 443
A Colloquy (Archives, December 1980) 448
A Poetic Fragment (Archives, April 1981) 453


See also